Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. A Gap in the Grid: Attempts to Introduce Natural Gas in Sweden From the cover of SOU The Swedish Energy System: Attempts to create a Swedish Natural Gas Sector Searching for New Supply Swedish Gas Politics at the End of the s List of Organisations and Institutions Luckily enough for my sanity, I have been surrounded by people who have helped me bring this boat to shore. Arne and Per, when I went to my first thesis defence party at the division I ended up sharing a dance floor with both
Nej timbro vi torstar inte efter privat vatten you and your partners.
I knew then that this was going to end well. Arne, you believed in me from day one, even in times when I did not believe in myself. Your never-ending encouragement, your patient and thourough readings of my chaotic manuscripts, your vast knowledge of my subject and your shrewd and insightful comments have safely guided me through these years.
Per, your honest and clearsighted criticism, your pertinent advice on writing, your Nej timbro vi torstar inte efter privat vatten integrity, and your fast responses to my questions, even from China, have been invaluable and an inspiration.
You have also both been generous with your wide intellectual and international networks, and pushed me to create my own. But, most of all, we have had a lot of fun.
Thank you for everything. At the division, I have not only been exposed to constant inspiration through engaging and intellectually stimulating conversations, but I have also felt safe and supported enough to launch strange course ideas and choose less obvious paths in my research.
I want to direct a heartfelt thank you to all of my present and former colleagues for your cheering and your sharing. Sharing offices and the whole Ph. Ingemar, a special mentioning to you for proof-reading and bearing with me and my questions this spring. My thesis manuscript has been presented at two seminars and critizised by two brilliant oppontents, Gustav Holmberg and Ylva Hasselberg. I consider you both academic role-models, and I am ever grateful for your honest, thought-provoking and insightful criticism and Gustav, for the candy.
Thank you for a timely and discussion. Over these years I have profited greatly from the unequalled creative, welcoming and intellectually challenging atmosphere in the Tensions of Europe and SHOT networks.
In particular, my first years as a Ph. It was an amazing experience, which helped me grow as a scholar and as a person. A special and very heartfelt thank you to Yiannis Garyfallos, Katarina Vlantoni, Vincent Lagendijk and Ivaylo Hristov whose warm friendship and dry commentary have made travels, conferences and summer schools unforgettable experiences.
I spent 5 months of my Ph. I came back with an improved self-confidence, better written English and a theoretical frame. I want to thank the grad student collective there for welcoming me. I also want to sincerely thank Professor Karen R. Polenske who allowed me to take her course on infrastructures, gave me invaluable comments and introduced me to some of my main theoretical concepts.
Thank you for you support through the jungle of Russian administration and for inviting me to your seminars and sessions. This thesis would not have been possible had I not been allowed to access material from the archives of Swedegas, E.
Thank you for your generosity and your interest in my work. I am very grateful for your insightful and valuable comments. Mother, your never-ending, warm and sincere interest in everything and everyone even such strange things as your daughters research on bio-mechanical prosthetics, cyborgs, and natural gas "Nej timbro vi torstar inte efter privat vatten" has always been a great inspiration to me and, most likely, the reason why I am here. Answering your relentless questions about what I am doing, why and how has made me a better scholar, Nej timbro vi torstar inte efter privat vatten this book a better one.
Thank you for asking, loving, reading, re-reading, proof-reading and being there with me to the bitter end. My ever-supporting and loving father and brother, thank you for always keeping me safe and sane on both a practical and psychological level.
None of this would have been possible without you. To the rest of my families and friends, thank you for your patience, for incessantly cheering me on and for occasionally taking my mind of work. This book is for you. When Elin Bommenel emailed me in suggesting I apply for a Ph.
The idea of me working at KTH seemed about as likely as me writing a book about natural gas. The European natural gas grid. Counterfactual map red lines of natural gas pipelines historically proposed for Sweden but never built.
Total energy- and oil consumption i Sweden PJ. The main trunk lines from the Soviet Union into Western Europe in From the SOU The cover of the final report on gas from the state commission of inquiry on oil and gas transportation, SOU The original Sydgas grid.
Map from the cover of Gasnytt, 3 Fig. The Swedish natural gas grid today. Map courtesy of Swedegas AB, http: The grid not only serves to interconnect countries that have historically been friendly neighbours and trusted trade partners, but also connected polities on opposite sides of the former Iron Curtain. Stretching from the northern regions of the North Sea down to the Saharan desert in the south, to Central Asia and Siberia in the East and the coast of the Atlantic Ocean in the west, the network constitutes one of the largest infrastructures in the world.
Importing natural gas has been a way for many
Nej timbro vi torstar inte efter privat vatten to diversify and strengthen their overall energy supply, but it has also created dependencies and vulnerabilities.
The extent of these has been much debated in recent years in connection with several gas conflicts between Russia and Ukraine, and in discussions regarding new transnational connections such as the Nord Stream pipeline through the Baltic Sea. However, the positive characteristics of natural gas have attracted more and more users.
Natural gas enjoys the reputation of being a very efficient fuel, especially in industrial processes, as well as being the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels.
Moreover, it is widespread. Nej timbro vi torstar inte efter privat vatten European countries have indigenous sources of natural gas, and, for those who do not, immense deposits are available nearby, notably in the North Sea, the Sahara, the Middle East and Siberia.
In Sweden, natural gas has largely escaped public debate. Instead energy debates have been dominated by other energy sources, such as hydropower, nuclear power and oil. One of the few times natural gas drew public attention was during the debate about Nord Stream.
The debate centered on the long-term environmental and geopolitical 1 http: Common Connections and Shared Vulnerabilities, ed. Palgrave Macmillan, ; David G. Jaffe and Mark H. Hayes, Natural Gas and Geopolitics: From to Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, While it is part of everyday lives for one segment of the Swedish population, Swedes in other places are hardly aware of its existence.
This relative anonymity of natural gas today stands in contrast to the extensive historical activity that has taken place on the Swedish natural gas scene. There have been many attempts to introduce natural gas in the country during the last 50 years. Efforts have been instigated by state commissions of inquiry, Nordic Council investigations, industry lobbying and have involved negotiations with a range of countries: From the s and onward, an interest in natural gas led Swedish actors from different spheres politics, industry, lobby groups to organise themselves, gather knowledge about natural gas and start networking with actors in other countries.
The political debate surrounding natural gas in Sweden has also at times been quite fierce. It depicts arrange of different projects proposed for Sweden as part of a Nordic gas grid in the last half-century. I have drawn the suggested pipeline routes in red, and LNG ports as blue circles. Norstedt, ; Robert L.
Energimyndigheten,figure Counterfactual map red lines and blue circles of natural gas pipelineshistorically proposed for Sweden but never built.
So far all this activity has resulted in only one pipeline. At the time, there were plans to extend the Danish-Swedish pipeline to the East Coast of Sweden as well as to connect the grid to both Norway and the Soviet Union.
However, this larger expansion still has not taken place, and today, the Swedish natural gas grid only stretches along the West Coast, with a few minor extensions, as seen on the map in the beginning of Chapter 9. Sydgas, as the Swedish part of the Danish-Swedish pipeline system is known, is also the only natural gas pipeline crossing a Nordic border.
In many other sub- regions of Europe, gas sources have been developed "Nej timbro vi torstar inte efter privat vatten," first catering to one country, and then their neighbours.
Despite the presence of natural gas in the Nordic region, however, natural gas links between the Nordic countries are conspicuously absent, and the European natural gas grid — which is otherwise ubiquitous — seems to have by-passed this region. There are only two exceptions: Why is there this gap in the European grid? The Nordic countries have had close cooperation in other sectors, such as electricity, where the region has aroused world-wide attention as a model for transnational Nej timbro vi torstar inte efter privat vatten.
What makes the gas issue different? In light of the pipelines being constructed across the former Iron Curtain and the Mediterranean, it may seem ironic that friendly and culturally close neighbours such as Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden have not been able to establish connections with each other. When looking at a particular fuel and how it has been incorporated into a system, there are many to take into account.
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