Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The Shifting Boundaries of Tolerance: R eligious diversity, tolerance and intolerance, inclusion and exclusion are phenomena that have prevailed throughout he Shifting Boundaries he Shifting Boundaries of Tolerance the 2,year long history of Christianity.
In this volume, ive Nordic researchers with ive diferent perspectives explore the shifting boundaries of religious tolerance in Finland, Sweden, of Tolerance and beyond. It provides a platform for innovative research in the area of collective memory and Edited by Ingvar Dahlbacka, religious uses of history.
Religious conlicts have been a recurring theme in Nordic church history and that is why the church historical research has often taken its starting point from a conlict perspective. With this project, we have chosen another approach. Rather than focusing on conlicts, we have tried to highlight the shifting borders of religious tolerance and thus include both those processes that expand tolerance and those processes where space for tolerance has diminished.
With the concept of exclusion, we have considered a process through which one or more people cannot be accommodated in a religious group identity, and are therefore sub- jected to sanctions due to some kind of diference regarding their learning or way of life.
With inclusion, we have considered the reverse process, i. Instead, a state of increased pluralism and tolerance emerges. One can, for example, talk about internal exclusion in cases where the members of a group are excluded. External exclusion, on the other hand, concerns the treatment of indi- viduals and factions that are already, in one way or another, outsiders. Similarly, inclusion may also be internal as well as external.
In addition to boundaries of tolerance in Finland and Sweden, the project has also aimed to make visible the inclusion and exclusion that has been in efect far outside Europe via the Christian mission. It is mainly Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget political and church historical discourses, which have been analysed in this regard. On the second level, the project scrutinised how exclusion and inclusion has been manifested at a local level and in the relationships between reli- gious as well as non-religious groups.
As a result, various groups have become apparent through their borders. However, these borders are often mere constructions and their importance may have varied, and what was once inside the borders may Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget changed. It is in this context that the two concepts of inclusion and exclusion, is to be understood. Tolerance boundaries have thus helped to create value based communities, which are often manifested through rituals, codes, and markers.
It has been considered relevant to analyse the church historical portraying of the past on the basis of issues of identity processes as well as in the shaping of tolerance boundaries. In Sweden, citi- zens were not guaranteed full freedom of religion until in During the period —, the religious landscape of Finland and Sweden changed radically.
It was transformed from having been inluenced by confessionalism and a symbiotic relationship between the State and the Lutheran Church to a secular form of government and religious pluralism. As early as inAnglicans "Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget" Reformed Protestants received expanded religious freedoms in the Swedish Empire. In Finland, there were already practicing Muslims resident during the irst half of the nineteenth century.
In addition, there were some groups of critical and reformist Lutherans who were members of the Church, but who did not observe the enforced doc- trine or, who, for various reasons, criticised the church order. By combining studies from short and long term perspectives with concrete case studies and discursive analyses the project has tried to capture the exciting relationship between the periodically ixed, yet constantly moving, boundaries of tolerance.
When the project began, two of these members were professors, namely Ingvar Dahlbacka and Ulrika Wolf-Knuts. An important objective for this project was to investigate how the religious boundaries of tolerance have been drawn, have been main- tained, and have changed in Nordic church history from — Inclusion, Exclusion, and Religious Communities of Memory — can be viewed as somewhat of an end report.
He does this by analysing the literary legacy of Anders Svedberg — — the man who founded the irst elem- entary school in Swedish-speaking Ostrobothnia, wrote actively in newspapers, and also represented the peasants in the Diet of Finland.
Dahlbacka claims that religious uses of history, when used within reli- gious communities of memory, can on the one hand serve as legit- imacy and guarantee and on the other hand as a wake-up call and a driving force. Finally, and especially tangent to the theme of this anthology, Dahlbacka argues that the boundaries of inclusion and exclusion are not only to be found in the of the church but, what is more, the use of such history, in itself, has the capacity to work by inclusion and exclusion.
In their work, they utilised the Finnish Church Law ofa number of elements from the old Swedish Church Law fromas well as their own discretion. Groop also examines issues of transculturality. He main- tains that the Finnish undertaking in Africa was not simply charac- terised by the imposition of a new religion and new values, but rather that this Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget was a itting example of cultural exchange and trans- fusion, resulting in a church with hybridised cultural traditions, reli- gious practices, and memories.
Czar Nicholas I wanted to reform and modernise the lives of his Jewish subjects through education and military training. In this study, Wolf-Knuts explores a religious movement — the Lutheran Laestadians — in which, a few years ago a case of paedophilia was exposed. She studies how forgiveness functions in praxis or what lived forgiveness looks like, or, more explicitly, how a member of a Laestadian community relates his experience of guilt, shame, and for- giveness.
In this article inclusion, exclusion, and the uses of history are combined in a new way. She studies the including aspects of reconciliation and sheds light on the societal exclusion which the Sami have faced and from which they are still sufering. All ive Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget have been peer-reviewed. Inclusion and Exclusion in the Context of Nordic Church History, —funded by the Academy of Finland, has been to investigate religious diversity and in tolerance in Finnish and Swedish Church History, and to highlight the historical processes and events that have given rise to the boundaries of inclusion and exclusion in the ields of church and religion.
With respect to this, the present article takes a somewhat diferent approach. Adopting a combination of theories from the Uses of History-perspective on the one hand, and the Cultural Memory-perspective on the other, the aim is to uncover some char- acteristics of a religious use of history. It will be argued, among other things, that the boundaries of inclusion and exclusion are not only to be found in the history of the church but, what is more, the use of such history, in itself, has the capacity to work by inclusion and exclusion.
As point of departure and as source material for this objective, I will Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget to a person called Anders Svedberg. Anders Svedberg — was born and lived all of his life in Munsala a village in Ostrobothnia, Finland.
In addition to having founded the irst elem- entary school in Swedish-speaking Ostrobothnia, he wrote actively in newspapers and also represented the peasants in the Diet of Finland. At this time, religion played an important role in the lives of the common people, especially those living in Ostrobothnia. Briely, a community of memory is used to describe groups that found their identity and self-image in a common narrative and on certain events in the past. For the people of Munsala, the Bible, but also the Lutheran tradition and the Pietistic revival, can be said to have constituted such formative and normative narratives.
He was able to make references, for instance, to the history of the Christian Church, to the Reformation, to the Pietistic revival and to the trials against the Pietistic movement that had taken place in the area. When making use of these historical events, Svedberg was speaking a language that the peasantry understood. See also Pleijel See also Andersson85, In all of this, Svedberg refers both to history in general and to Church history.
However, he is careful to stress the fact that both are directed by God, which ultimately means that the two are one and the same.
Despite the change of focus, mentioned above, the Christian con- tribution is not entirely missing in the latter book either. However, in this book, the Christian element is more or less at the service of the nation. One could also say that Svedberg, in his irst book, asserts that God has guided the Christian people from the past to the present, whereas the second book demonstrates God guiding the Finnish people throughout history.
By means of his historical narratives, Svedberg tried to tackle and answer these problems and questions. To express his point of view, Svedberg compared his contemporar- ies with earlier periods in history, during which religious groups had been oppressed.
For instance, he refers to the Catholic persecution of Lutherans after the Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget and to the trials against the Pietistic movement mentioned above. Furthermore, when Svedberg makes use of events that his target audi- ence recognizes, are familiar with,
Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget are able to relate to, he is able to bring together the past with the present and the future; thus giving present events a continuity and a context and helping his audience to see itself as part of a greater whole.
In one sense, the three case studies touch upon diferent levels of the Uses of History. Whereas the irst one deals with more com- prehensive and theoretical matters, the focus of the second and the third case studies are conined to a more concrete and detailed level.
In these latter cases, the historical narratives and single words and phrases are examined. I will now move on to a discussion on this question. Religious Uses of History as Legitimacy and Guarantee What all the three case studies mentioned above have in common is an emphasis on how the use of history is tied to its context — how it is rooted in and marked by the speciic historical culture in which it comes into being and in which it is used.
To serve its purpose successfully a use of history consequently has to correlate to the surrounding historical culture. Such narratives subsequently have the potential to be identity-forming and meaning-making. He knew his target audience and their history. To some extent, this can prob- ably be explained by the fact that Svedberg himself had grown up in these settings, and that he had adopted and internalized the local cus- toms and practices.
Furthermore, due to his esteemed local status as a teacher, journalist, and Member of Parliament, Svedberg had reached a position where he, with the words of Jan Assmann, can be said to have been part of the elite that had the capacity and the authority to interpret and mediate the local history and tradition. By doing so I will try to distinguish what could possibly be seen as characteristic qualities of the religious uses of history. Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget good example of this is the reference Svedberg makes to the trials against the Pietistic movement in Nykarleby, which had taken place only a few decades Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget, in the s and s.
It can be described as a cultural memory according to Assmann, which has been passed on and survived from generation to generation. Svedberg himself had hardly even met a Catholic.
In a letter to his wife Brita Greta, Svedberg reveals that he has visited a Catholic service in Helsinki that he describes as odd.
I claim that this quality might just reach its full potential within a religious use of history that is directed towards a religious group. According to Jan Assmann, the collective memory is an essential part of the identity building and continued existence of practically every collective and group. Adherents of a Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget that is conident of its own validity are unlikely to make an appeal to memory: An identity that solidly exists has little need for an explicit, thematized appeal to memory.
When memory approximates to tradition, it approximates to weak tradition. In other words, an appeal to memory — that is, 20 Dahlbacka, J. Cultural texts are not exclusively limited to writing, Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget also include places, persons and events. A literary text is irst and foremost directed to the individual reader, whereas the cultural text is directed to the reader as part as a collective. In the set- ting where Svedberg lived and worked, the Bible and the Lutheran tradition, as well as the Pietistic revival, were all part of this cultural text or identity shaping narrative.
I propose that these kinds of uses of history, 23 Megill See Sakaranahowho refers to Burke Such a use of history serves a twofold purpose.
It "Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget" only legitimizes predictions and statements about the present time and the future with examples from history but it also guarantees them with an authority that is based on the cultural text. Why I call it prophet- ical, thus implying that it convincingly predicts future events, has to do with the promises that these kinds of cultural texts of a religious memory community often contain, that are brought to the fore by references to the past.
I will return to this in the next chapter. He claims that histor- ical narratives function as meaning-making if they, on the one hand, manage to weave together the past, the present and the future, and on the other hand if they, by placing their addressees in a wider historical context, manage to help these people to orientate themselves in the present and towards the future.
”Uppdraget” – Fackligt aktiva invandrare. Enligt Kyle var invandring det sista alternativet för LO under talet. Hon menar däremot att LO Yvonne Hirdman lyfte fram den halvnakna manliga bilden på väggen i foajén i LO-borgen var ”directly opposed to our own endeavours and those of the established organi.
talets sista decennium och talets första årtionde Med en sliten.
dess utgångspunkter på så vis att den lyfter fram betydelsen av sociologins rötter i humaniora. Wittgensteins och Russells arbeten menade man sig ha stöd i sitt uppdrag att skilja. Science endeavours to transform the statements of everyday life.
Uppdraget var Endeavours tjugotredje till rymden. 31 maj där hon genomgick de sista förberedelserna inför sitt uppdrag STS Dag 1: Endeavour lyfte
Endeavour lyfte for sista uppdraget.