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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Not only did sea birds provide energy in terms of food, but they were also useful for clothing, fuel, fertilizer, medicine, pets, and as raw material for handicrafts and toys Svanberg in press.

In most ethnographical descriptions from various coastal and island communities we find information about these aspects of local folk ornithology. Probably from ancient times, and certainly from the early 17th cen- tury until the first half of the 20th century, black guillemots were taken for food; adults were hunted, nestlings collected and eggs taken from nests.

Such domains include the cumulative body of human consumption or utilisation, naming patterns, and beliefs as well as empirical and long-established interpretations of behaviour, habits and interrelationships between species within an ecosystem. The aim of ethno- biology is to reveal those meaningful systems that traditional ecological knowledge constitutes. To do so, researchers must take their starting- point in native classification systems, folk taxonomies and interpretations of the consistent use and experience of a people or local community of the biosphere around them.

The economic significance of many birds for a community has of course been an important reason why ethnobiologists have always been interested in Aland reseguide till mat bad och utflykter local folk ornithology — i. Ornithological Remarks The black guillemot Cepphus grylle is a medium-sized bird of the order Charadriiformes, and one of 21 living species of the Alcid fam- ily Alcidae. Alcids frequent salt water, usually open seas, and are rarely seen else- where. Unlike most other members of the family, the black guillemot prefers open, shallow, inshore waters.

The guillemot does not form great colonies, as do the other Alcids, except in the high Arctic, e. Usually only one or a few pairs will occupy a sheer cliff or rocky shore as a nesting location, near to their feeding grounds though in Svalbard in nests were reported 3 km from the sea where 2 eggs, instead of the single one typical of most Alcids, are laid in crevices, or sometimes in caves in faces of inaccessible sea cliffs as high as m, or under rocks or loose boulders lower down at the foot of talus slopes on headlands Aland reseguide till mat bad och utflykter on rocky islands.

Less often, eggs are laid under rocks among vegetation or under driftwood and similar items, or in boats and houses. Distribution of the black guillemot. Adults in breeding plumage are entirely black, except for a white patch on the upper wing-coverts; the legs and feet are red; the bill is slender and black in colour; the eyes brown or black; the inside of the mouth vermilion or coral red. Very occasionally individuals are found with no wing patch; these were at one time assigned to a separate species called Cepphus motzfeldi.

Adults in non-breeding plumage are mostly white, but their upper parts are mottled sooty brown, giving them a finely barred appearance. The juvenal plumage is similar but darker. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the plumage is extremely variable among the different geographical areas mentioned above. The two sexes are alike in all plumages. Aerobatic chan- ges of direction are often performed with birds flying high into the air during pair chases. On the water they ride buoyantly, sometimes with the tail cocked.

The birds utter a variety of high-pitched screaming, whist- ling and peeping sounds, and when disturbed on a nest, a hiss Freethy Taxonomy is unresolved, but recent treatment lists 5 subspecies: As to the total population, one recent estimate was ,—, pairs, but small colony size and cavity-nesting make accurate estimates of this species difficult Freethy Naming Carolus Linnaeus gave the bird the scientific name Alca grylle in This was later changed to Cepphus grylle.

The contemporary English-speaking audience is most familiar with the name black guillemot. Albin also gives the name turtle as a Bass Rock name for the black guillemot, and says that this name as well as Greenland dove are on account of its laying two eggs, instead Aland reseguide till mat bad och utflykter one, as auks usually do Swann The name turtle is also known in Orkney Hull Besides the above mentioned names in Willughby and Albin, in the British Isles the black guillemot has locally been called scraber East Lothian, Hebrides Swainson Norse Names On the Orkneys and Shetlands as well as in Caithness, the black guillemot is still known under its old Norn name tystie or taistey, which also occurs as taiste, taister, teiste, teistie, toyst, toyste and tysty Hull The old- est recorded forms are toists in and teisty in Lockwood These words are written teisti and teista in contemporary Icelandic, the latter being the common name for the bird.

The word is found in other languages too, including Faroese teisti Lockwood Among the Swedish- speaking coastal dwellers and islanders in the Baltic Sea, it has been known as grissla. These probably allude to its habit of swimming with the bill underwater.

The birds are apparently designated as doves or pigeons for a variety of reasons, such as the shape of their bills, their regular laying of two eggs, and their apparent devotion to their mates McAtee In Greenland Aland reseguide till mat bad och utflykter bird was called serbak or sergvak, as dean Otto Fabricius records in ; and in summer plumage kernekungojuk or kernektarsuk, in winter plumage kakortungojuk Fabricius Utilization of the Black Guillemot The economic aspect is of course the most important reason for local communities developing traditional knowledge about this species.

The reason for this may be found in an 18th century source: They were hunted in boats, taken with long sticks 4. In later times shotguns were used. The birds were plucked and the down and feathers used in mat- tresses, duvets and pillows, and the meat was then salted, smoked or wind-dried, and one source born in in western Iceland records it was used in soups. Laws forbid many such activities now. But in Iceland, where black guillemots are still taken for food by some few, the hunting season is September 1 — May The black guillemot has breeding colonies all over the Faroe Islands and hunting is described as early as the 17th century.

According to Debes AroundJens Christian Svabo wrote the following about the black guillemot in the Faroe Islands: In the midth century the "Aland reseguide till mat bad och utflykter" birds were killed at the end of July when they were seen on the sea.

The young birds were still being hunted in the 20th century, according to informants from Vestmanna. However, nowadays the bird is a protected species. The black guillemot was traditionally taken by hunters for food on the Orkney Islands Fenton It was also hunted on Shetland, apparently as a sport.

Saxby writes from there in the midth century: The Aran Islanders used to eat them on Fridays because they never flew over land and lived on seafood Stickney Nestlings and eggs were also gathered in Norway Nilsson The meat of the young birds was also eaten by the coastal and island- dwellers in Finland and Sweden.

The trapped birds were used for soup Roth The same is true of many other islands in the Swedish archipelagos. At the end of August, when the young birds were ready to fly, the hunter equipped himself with a large basket and a long soft stick. With this equipment he searched the mountains and listened for the nestlings in the caves.

When he heard a bird he used the hooked stick to reach the nestlings. Some nestlings were brought home, fed with fish, and fattened before being slaughtered. Also from Kalmar archipel- ago we have reports of how the nestlings were extracted from the caves with long sticks. Aland reseguide till mat bad och utflykter consumption of seafowl fledglings that were intensively fattened at the end of their nesting period is common along the coastal areas and island societies of northwestern Europe Berg The eggs were also collected.

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There are several names formed with Riskil- e. The guillemot has been used for food since ancient times in Greenland Gotfredsen Otto Fabricius writes in the 18th century that the Greenlanders used the skin and the meat. They also ate the boiled eggs, and the red hide of the feet was used as bait for fishing. The birds were either hunted with arrows or trapped with snares in their nests Fabricius Young Greenlanders hunting in kayaks focused on young guillemot birds.

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This was regarded as good training for later when seal hunting Lynge The black guillemot is still hunted in Greenland, especially in the autumn August—November and especially the young. It is protected from June 1—August Non-commercial gath- ering of eggs for domestic use is allowed until July Salomonsen During winter the Inuit along the Alaskan coast used to hunt black guillemots.

Since the birds are not particularly afraid of humans, they are an easy target with a rifle. They were earlier also caught in nets Nelson Once there were children playing at the base of a cliff and this bothered the seal hunters. One of them lost his patience and cried out to the gods to make the cliff fall on the children.

And this is why these birds lay two eggs, unlike the rest of the Auk family who lay but one Stickney The fat young birds were especially sought among coastal dwellers. Aland reseguide till mat bad och utflykter some places they were gathered in their nests, or sometimes even brought home to be fattened before being eaten, but elsewhere they were chased on the open seas.

Although they are nowadays protected in many areas, they are still hunted in others. The eggs were and are also collected for food.

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Black guillemot Cepphus grille. The Birds of North America. Faeroae et Faeroa reserta: Gotfredsen, Anne Birgitte, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 7. British Birds, their Folklore, Names and Literature. Beitrag zur Kenntnis Vogelwelt Islands.

breeding, while the species may...

British Names of Birds. Ten Scandinavian and North English Etymologies. Spitzbergische, oder, Groenlandische Reise-Beschreibung: breeding, while the species may also be present in ponds with higher . archipelago of Åland and in Karelia in the eastern part of Finland (connected . species action plans have been produced in order to facilitate and guide nutrient-poor ponds surrounded by for example mires and forest landscapes.

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The same is true of many other islands in the Swedish archipelagos. Adults in breeding plumage are entirely black, except for a white patch on the upper wing-coverts; the legs and feet are red; the bill is slender and black in colour; the eyes brown or black; the inside of the mouth vermilion or coral red.

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