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Together with three island territories in the Caribbean BonaireSint Eustatius and Sabait forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve provinces and borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, the United Kingdomand Germany.

With a population of Nevertheless, it is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products after the United States, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, and intensive agriculture. The Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative governmentand has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since Historically, a tradition of pillarisationsegregated communities and institutions between Aj aj man far inte smaka pa putinProtestants and secular citizens, but Dutch society is today among the most cosmopolitan in the world.

The country has a long history of social tolerance, having legalised abortionprostitutionand euthanasiawhile maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty inallowed women's suffrage inand became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in It hosts several intergovernmental organizations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, which is consequently dubbed 'the world's legal capital.

One of the world's most prosperous countries, the Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, [20] economic freedom, [21] human developmentand quality of life. It is also known for its polder modelthe country's leading socioeconomic model based on consensus decision-making.

The Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and widely varying names in different languages. There is diversity even within languages. This holds also for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands".

Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, Holland, home to the capital city of Amsterdam ; government headquarters at The Hague ; and Europe's largest port Rotterdam.

The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, however, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland. The region of Holland consists of North and South Hollandtwo of the nation's twelve provinces, formerly a single province, and earlier still, the County of Hollanda remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom.

Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of FlandersHolland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Aj aj man far inte smaka pa putin region.

The emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republicthe Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, which is now considered either incorrect, [25] [26] informal, [27] or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is widely used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.

The region called the Low Countries comprising Belgiumthe Netherlands and Luxembourg and the Country of the Netherlands, have the same toponymy. They are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as UpperBovenObenSuperior or Haut. The geographical location of the upper region, however, changed over time tremendously, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area.

The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior nowadays part of Belgium and the Netherlands and upstream Germania Superior nowadays part of Germany. The designation 'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorrainethat covered much of the Low Countries.

Burgundy in present-day east-central France. This was translated as Neder-landen in contemporary Dutch official documents. The area known as Oberland High country was in this deictic context considered to begin approximately at the nearby higher located Cologne.

From the mid-sixteenth century on, the "Low Countries" and the "Netherlands" lost their original deictic meaning. They were probably the most commonly used names, besides Flandersanother pars pro toto for the Low Countries, especially in Romance language speaking Europe. The Low Countries today is a designation that includes the countries the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, although in most Romance languagesthe term "Low Countries" is used as the name for the Netherlands specifically.

It is used synonymous with the more neutral and geopolitical term Benelux. The prehistory of the area that is now the Netherlands was largely shaped by the sea and the rivers that constantly shifted the low-lying geography.

The oldest human Neanderthal traces were found in higher soils, Aj aj man far inte smaka pa putin Maastrichtfrom what is believed to be aboutyears ago. From Mesolithic Maglemosian-like tribes c. Indigenous late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from the Swifterbant culture c. There was a quick and smooth transition from the Funnelbeaker farming culture to the pan-European Corded Ware pastoralist culture c.

Although in the southwest, the Seine-Oise-Marne culture related Vlaardingen culture c. Of the subsequent Bell Beaker culture — BC several regions of origin have been postulated, notably the Iberian peninsula, the Netherlands and Central Europe.

The many finds in Drenthe of rare bronze objects, suggest that it was even a trading centre in the Bronze Age — BC. The initial phase of the Elp culture was characterised by tumuli — BC that were strongly tied to contemporary tumuli in northern Germany and Scandinavia, and were apparently related to the Tumulus culture in central Europe. The subsequent phase was that of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields, following the customs of the Urnfield culture — BC.

The southern region became dominated by the related Hilversum culture — BCwhich apparently inherited cultural ties with Britain of the previous Barbed-Wire Beaker culture. Iron ore brought a measure of prosperity, and was available throughout the country, including bog iron. Smiths travelled from settlement to settlement with bronze and iron, fabricating tools Aj aj man far inte smaka pa putin demand. The King's grave of Oss BC was found in a burial mound, the largest of its kind in western Europe and containing an iron sword with an inlay of gold and coral.

The deteriorating climate in Scandinavia around BC, that further deteriorated around BC, might have triggered migration of Germanic tribes from the North.

many of the affected regions...

By the time this migration was complete, around BC, a few general cultural and linguistic groups had emerged. They would later develop into the Frisii and the early Saxons. This group consisted of tribes that would eventually develop into the Salian Franks. Some scholars have speculated that even a third ethnic identity and language, neither Germanic nor Celtic, survived in the Netherlands until the Roman period, the Iron Age Nordwestblock culture, [42] [43] that eventually was being absorbed by the Celts to the south and the Germanic peoples from the east.

The Rhine became fixed as Rome's northern frontier around 12 AD. Notable towns would arise along the Limes Germanicus: The area to the north of the Rhine, inhabited by the Frisii, remained outside Roman rule but not its presence and controlwhile the Germanic border tribes of the Batavi and Cananefates served in the Roman cavalry.

The Batavi later merged with other tribes into the confederation of the Salian Franks, whose identity emerged at the first half of the third century. They were forced by the confederation of the Saxons from the east to move over the Rhine into Roman Aj aj man far inte smaka pa putin in the fourth century.

”Inter-Longitude Astronomy” (ILA) Project: Current...

Roman forces pacified the region, but did not expel the Franks, who continued to be feared at least until the time Aj aj man far inte smaka pa putin Julian the Apostatewhen Salian Franks were allowed to settle as foederati in Toxandria.

Coastal lands remained largely unpopulated for the next two centuries. After Roman government in the area collapsed, the Franks expanded their territories in numerous kingdoms. By the s, Clovis I had conquered and united all these territories in the southern Netherlands in one Frankish kingdomand from there continued his conquests into Gaul.

During this expansion, Franks migrating to the south eventually adopted the Vulgar Latin of the local population. To the north of the Franks, climatic conditions on the coast improved, and during the Migration Period the abandoned land was resettled again, mostly Aj aj man far inte smaka pa putin Saxonsbut also by the closely related AnglesJutes and ancient Frisii. By the seventh century a Frisian Kingdom — under King Aldegisel and King Redbad emerged with Utrecht as its centre of power, [48] [49] while Dorestad was a flourishing trading place.

Inat the Battle of the Boarnthe Frisians were defeated after a series of wars. He established the Archdiocese of Utrecht and became bishop of the Frisians. However, his successor Boniface was murdered by the Frisians in Dokkumin However, as ofit was divided into three parts— EastMiddleand West Francia.

Most of present-day Netherlands became part of Middle Franciawhich was a weak kingdom and subject of numerous partitions and annexation attempts by its stronger neighbours.

It comprised territories from Frisia in the north to the Kingdom of Italy in the south. After he died inLotharingia was partitioned, into Upper and Lower Lotharingiathe latter part comprising the Low Countries that technically became part of East Francia inalthough it was effectively under the control of Vikings, who raided the largely defenceless Frisian and Frankish towns lying on the Frisian coast and along the rivers.

The Viking raids made the sway of French and German lords in the area weak.

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Resistance to the Vikings, if any, came from local nobles, who gained in stature as a result, and that laid the basis for the disintegration of Lower Lotharingia into semi-independent states. One of these local nobles was Gerolf of Hollandwho assumed lordship in Frisia after he helped to assassinate Godfrid, and Viking rule came to an end.

The Holy Roman Empire the successor state of East Francia and then Lotharingia ruled much of the Low Countries in the 10th and 11th century, but was not able to maintain political unity. Powerful local nobles turned their cities, counties and duchies into private kingdoms, that felt Aj aj man far inte smaka pa putin sense of obligation to the emperor.

HollandHainautFlandersGelreBrabantand Utrecht were in a state of almost continual war or paradoxically formed personal unions. The language and culture of most of the people who lived in the County of Holland were originally Frisian.

The rest of Frisia in the north now Friesland and Groningen continued to maintain its independence and had its own institutions collectively called the " Frisian freedom " and resented the imposition of the feudal system.

Around AD, due to several agricultural developments, the economy started to develop at a fast pace, and the higher productivity allowed workers to farm more land or to become tradesmen. Towns grew around monasteries and castlesand a mercantile middle class began to develop in Aj aj man far inte smaka pa putin urban areas, especially in Flanders and later also Brabant. Wealthy cities started to buy certain privileges for themselves from the sovereign.

In practice, this meant that Brugge and Antwerp became quasi-independent republics in their own right and would later develop into some of the most important cities and ports in Europe.

Around AD, farmers from Flanders and Utrecht began draining and cultivating uninhabited swampy land in the western Netherlands, and made the emergence of the County of Holland as centre of power possible. Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten between and The Cod faction consisted of the more progressive cities, while the Hook faction consisted of the conservative noblemen.

Most of the Imperial and French fiefs in what is now the Netherlands and Belgium were united in a personal union by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy in Before the Burgundian union, the Dutch identified themselves by the town they lived in or their local duchy or county. The Burgundian period is when the road to nationhood began. The new rulers defended Dutch trading interests, which Aj aj man far inte smaka pa putin developed rapidly. The fleets of the County of Holland defeated the fleets of the Hanseatic League several times.

Amsterdam grew and in the 15th century became the primary trading port in Europe for grain from the Baltic region. Amsterdam distributed grain to the major cities of Belgium, Northern France and England.

This trade was vital, because Holland could no longer produce enough grain to feed itself. Land drainage had caused the peat of the former wetlands to reduce to a level that was too low for drainage to be maintained.

Under Habsburg Charles Vruler of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Spainall fiefs in the current Netherlands region were united into the Seventeen Provinceswhich also included most of present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, and some adjacent land in what is now France and Germany.

The level of ferocity exhibited by both sides can be gleaned from a Dutch chronicler's report: On more than one occasion men were seen hanging their own brothers, who had been taken prisoners in the enemy's ranks A Spaniard had ceased to be human in their eyes.

On one occasion, a surgeon at Veer cut the heart from a Spanish prisoner, nailed it on a vessel's prow, and invited the townsmen to come and fasten their teeth in it, which many did with savage satisfaction. Malaya, and a study of the military and political forces of the Far EaWt.

Emphasis in the A. J. Nystrom and Company, Chicago, Ill., I really would not have made it as far as I have in school and in life community, connected through the Internet as well as traditional market,77 man, or the state. . and Russia shaped some domestic policy decisions. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. . Szabo, Franz A. J. (). many of the affected regions (e.g., China, Russia and South-East.

Asia). Other regions of. available only from a limited number of countries so far. Therefore.

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