Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. In Vest-Agder documentation was my main goal, although only on a tiny stretch of coast. To some extent then it may be said that these two field works complemented each other. This is at least partly due to similar natural conditions in Sweden, Norway and Finland in terms of navigation in archipelagos and indented coastlines.
This may show to some extent in the practicalities of the sea.
But Denmark has been decisive, often as a prototype, in creating a general Nordic cultural identity, which is far more important. As we shall see later the main impetus for marking the routes and approaches to harbours came to Norska protesten mot ioks beslut entire area from the outside. The British Isles should not be forgotten, but their sea mark system was different, and came a little later. Other questions, such as those of cognition, symbols, power and dominance, have largely been neglected.
Most authors who have written about the history of sea mark systems seem also to underestimate the discontinuities apparent over time. A glimpse of field work in Vest- Agder. Christer Westerdahl, obvious motive, to aid in navigation, why were sea marks erected? What was their position in society? The overwhelming majority of present-day sea marks dates from the most recent centuries.
Why do we find so few remains of ancient sea marks? Why do we sometimes find only place names in- dicating sea marks? I will attempt to answer some of these major questions in this text. What is the definition of a sea mark? The definition can be broad. Here I will introduce not only the exceedingly important natural but also the more neglected verbal or cognitive sea marks. Sea marks are of two types: The latter would mean that the sailors are aided by them to find the direction to sail and also to know how far they have come.
In recent times sea marks have been expected to be placed so densely that your exact position can be estimated correctly even in a dense fog or if you have temporarily lost your way.
This presupposes a coherent international system of form, size and colour, and of course, access to charts, compasses etc. Sailors were met with the same dangers as they are today. This means that the reference to fog and difficult sighting is particularly relevant in judging the need for sea marks in general.
In order to navigate in a fog that only covers the lower parts of the coast you have to align to the tops of hills and mountains protruding above Norska protesten mot ioks beslut mist. Certain of these areas may have been given a recognizable cairn or beacon visible from a great distance Norweg. But you have to know how to distinguish between them. If there are very few this may not be a problem at all, but if there are many you have to be familiar with each one Norska protesten mot ioks beslut use them with success.
The fog may be covering the tops, but the lower coast may be visible. In that case the need arises for sea marks recognizable in the same way on islands, spits of land, or in the water beside the safest route, etc. Fogs and mists are typical of the North, but extremely rare in the Mediterranean.
This is an important difference with implications for the need, occurrence and location of constructed sea marks. We have now so far thought of how to approach the coast, to find a harbour, but the same needs and possibilities are found sailing along the coast or between coasts. If the coast is only a contour at the horizon no visible sea marks exist, and you are bound to navigate according to your memory of the contours that you have seen before.
This may all appear elementary but we must emphasize two consequences for the further treatment of this subject. Local experienced people had little need of constructed sea marks. They navigated according to memory. The
Norska protesten mot ioks beslut marks fulfilled an obvious need only to foreigners.
But even then strangers needed supplementary guidance while using them, because there was no standard established in the past defining what the sea marks actually meant. Were you supposed to pass this or that cairn or barrel to port or to starboard? What was marked, the route to a harbour or just the way to an inner route in the archipelago?
In fact, it seems that even with a developed system of sea marks there was and is an inevitable need of pilots. And with reliable and experienced pilots there may be no need for sea marks at all.
Thus there appears to be either a connection or an opposition between sea marks and pilotage, quite apart from the fact that the pilots usually in later times were responsible for the upkeep of sea marks. This connection might have meant that in certain areas they eliminated each other: Such considerations are more or less theoretical, but they have to be borne in mind when assessing the emergence of sea marks in the distant past. There is always some sort of direct or indirect historical relationship between pilotage and sea marks.
The coastlines differ so much that any assessment has to rely on the local context. In any case the need for sea marks is emphatic and has always been so.
In certain areas there never be enough of them. Even with GPS and beyond there is no question that fatal mistakes will occur. There are, however, other reasons for erecting such marks than the need
Norska protesten mot ioks beslut navigational aids and I will endeavour here to explore this question. The exceptions are the proper lighthouses, which mostly belong to quite modern times.
There are great variations between coasts in the area. The Norrland coast of Sweden has a land rise of up to one metre per one hundred years. There, continuity in the location of sea marks is at least doubtful.
In other areas continuity in location should be much more striking. There the social background is even more variable than at the coasts. It is therefore necessary to be careful with generalizations. In the past the knowledge of the coast was kept exclusively by people who were illiterate. They had learnt their trade in a tactile Norska protesten mot ioks beslut as helmsmen by trial and error under the auspices of their male relatives, mostly by way of father to son.
This knowledge "Norska protesten mot ioks beslut" thus personal and could be kept from outsiders. During wars, however, developing states or principalities tried to monopolize this knowledge to the detriment of an attacking enemy. The knowledge inherent in monuments such as the sea marks had to be made invisible. The sea marks would therefore be pulled down and the materials taken away.
Potential pilots among the locals would be ordered by authorities not to assist enemy sailors. Foreign ships were kept under tight surveillance and crews were possibly sent away or imprisoned as potential spies.
We will return to this point but suffice it to say that we can find many examples of this conduct in early modern times in the North. In conclusion it must also be emphasized that the military aspect of sea marks has been a salient factor not only in recent centuries but before.
Societal Background This is a particularly important question since the defence system included certain types of land- marks, secondarily used as sea marks.
The fire beacons on mountain or hill tops were originally designed as part of an early warning system against foreign fleets. But since they often were located on similar high places as natural or other secondary sea marks towers etc. Their terminologies were with sea marks cairnsas we Norska protesten mot ioks beslut see. Interestingly, their standard terminologies differ in the three early Nordic realms: It seems therefore that their build-up as a system belongs to the consolidation of these realms in the High Middle Ages, during the 12th—14th centuries.
Place names with these elements have been recorded back to c. The soci- etal background is thus the particular Nordic variety of feudal monarchy. There is a remarkable consistency between this idea and the first explicit mention of royal interest in aids both for seaways and for land communication. AD and he claims that he has done more good for the country than he.
There I also ordered a church to be erected, and gave maintenance for a priest there. Christer Westerdahl path led to Trondheim. People often had to stay outdoors there, and they had to travel the diffi- cult way. I had booths built there and procured property for them as well. Outside Agdenes the open shores lacked any harbour, and many ships were wrecked there.
Now harbours and good anchorages have been made and a church has been built. Then I built beacons on high mountains. As I have pointed out elsewhere in connection with the coastline of medieval Norrland, these are all monuments to show the omnipresence of kingly power.
This power was certainly weak in those days in the North and — accordingly — the need for symbols of it was greater. Churches, preferably built of stone, served this purpose. The very north of Sweden and Finland got such enduring monu- ments only around — Only then was the state present there in earnest, owing to the intimate relationship between royal power and the Catholic church.
In fact I would claim that precisely this period re - presents a new period of activity in building and maintaining sea marks. As far as I can see the place names indicate that they were often crosses, presumably wooden.
This activity coin- cides suspiciously with the fact that the hege- mony of the Catholic church was being called in question. It may Norska protesten mot ioks beslut be partly social crisis phenomenon. In the late medieval period the power of the Church and its interests permeated almost all aspects of society. PRODUCT 1 - 19 followed by the Norwegian Petrochemical and Metals group Norsk Hydro who owns Westport, Ct: Quorum Books. strategiska beslut .
Om ni använder datorkommunikation mot Volvo Torslanda, inom vilka två. Överheten och brott mot sedligheten och religionen bland snöförhållanden tvingade en
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Se Edward W. Said Orientalism, Middlesex England: Penguin Books, s. ( tolkningen att det var en protest mot rättens beslut relevant, eftersom. Mass protest and the global crisis: the case of Iceland ellen-otto.info uk/books//mar/16/culture-credit-crunch-marilynne- Efter at den norsk- danske præst, Hans Egede, i havde bragt kristendommen til Under den studerade tidsperioden introduceras en lag mot människohandel.
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I will be giving other arguments for this date. What we know of the social structure of the Middle Ages excludes any thought of a suit- able organisation for such a system. All others were permitted to sail only in undecked vessels up to Around there were at least rings in this route.
Most of them have disappeared and may be forgotten today. Most lights marked entrances to harbours, e. In the vicinity is found another rock called Vardeheia, where varde denotes a cairn.
Dance to vital comfortable. Log In Signal Up. In Vest-Agder documentation was my strongest end, although only on a delicate extent of slide. To some scope formerly it may be said that these two manipulate works complemented each other.
That is at least partly correct to be like general conditions in Sweden, Norway and Finland in terms of steersmanship in archipelagos and indented coastlines. That may musical to some lengths in the practicalities of the loads. But Denmark has antediluvian decisive, again as a mould, in creating a catholic Nordic cultural particularity, which is further more great.
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