Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. In the Shadows of his House: Preface During my nearly four years as a PhD-student, I have enjoyed the privilege of working, living and interacting with loads of magnificent people. I am obliged to all of them. First of all, I want to mention my supportive supervisor, Professor Regina Schulte at the European University Institute in "Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad," who has been there for me throughout the entire project.
My research has been greatly facilitated by a number of fellow historians who have examined various parts of my manuscript. Three members of the history department at the University of Uppsala have been particularly formative in my scholarly development. Vital practical support has been offered by a number of external entities.
The staff at Uppsala Landsarkiv helped with a variety of archival issues during my research missions in Uppsala. I would also like to thank Sheryl Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad, who corrected my English manuscript. Now, over to the more informal section — people who have helped me by just being who they are. The most important person is my wife and queen of hearts, Nanna. She lives in every syllable of this dissertation.
Staffan, Solveig, Tia, my two grannies Gunborg and Sanna, my late grandfather Ulrik, plus aunts, uncle and cousins. During my
Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad in Florence, I was fortunate enough to get involved with the excellent people of the Moretti clan Mirkster, Yane, Chairman Mau and the Irm-maid along with some prominent free agents like Till and Lorand. At last, I want to express my gratitude to two infinite wellsprings of inspiration: Yet since the wife Eva Matsdotter contested this and as Olof Ersson could not be convinced to explain what he meant by this allegation, the District Court found no other resolution than to reprimand Olof Ersson that he did not seem to have any reason to complain that the wife was not manly, since his wife was a woman and consequently ought to be womanly.
The introductory excerpt from the court case of Olof Ersson and Eva Matsdotter points to the very core of this enterprise.
The young farmhand Olof sought to obtain a divorce from Eva and provided the local law court with a number of arguments as to why his marriage was a failure. Different versions of "Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad" it meant to be a husband were proposed as the marital status of young Olof was dissected by prying actors representing different strata of Swedish society: The miserable marriage of Olof and Eva was discussed by various actors within a complex administrative apparatus defined in this dissertation as the marriage administration.
This entity is further discussed in the source section, but it can be roughly characterised as a multifaceted system of government constituted by both the state, the church and the local communities. These focused on individual cases, and the terms of power were unevenly distributed among the discussants, yet collectively they constituted an on-going debate, within parish assemblies, parsonages and various law courts, as to how the Good Marriage ought to be defined.
The positions voiced in these debates about marital life are identified as marriage ideology in this study: The objective of this dissertation is to examine the concepts of masculinity associated with the Husband and the role he was supposed to fulfil in marriage as well as in society at large. The analytical focus is set on language use: At the hub of the analysis is the interpretative hegemony of the authorities and their continuous attempts at establishing the official standards of the Good Husband.
Why a history of masculinity? Men and their deeds have been at the centre of attention within millennia of historical scholarship, chiefly produced by male authors targeting male audiences, so wherein lies the novelty and relevance of a masculinity perspective? Recent work within the growing field of masculinity studies has proved that the male gender paradoxically is everywhere and nowhere in traditional historiography.
The main ingredient has indeed been male protagonists, in particular the rich and powerful, but their status as men, as carriers of a gender, is rarely touched upon. In this critique, the historiography on 2 Two important scholars within masculinity studies are Robert Conell and John Tosh, representing sociology and history respectively. InJohn Tosh wrote a programmatic article about the history of masculinity, where he exemplified the case of Victorian Britain.
See Tosh,pp. Because of its object of study, however, the approaches of male history differ from other forms of gender studies. The analytical focus is not set on excluded and marginalized groups, but on the gender construction of the allegedly sexless human norm at the core of social and political power.
Inthe German-Austrian historian Otto Brunner published an essay which has held a long-lasting influence within the European family historiography, especially among German-speaking scholars.
In short, they study how concepts of masculinity have influenced and been influenced by actions, events and processes in times past. As an example, the American historian Gail Bederman demonstrates that American middle-class men at the turn of the century experienced their male identities to be under siege, due to, among other things, female emancipation, the integration of freed slaves into respectable society, and gloomy economic conjunctures. As a defence against these perceived threats, the middle-class concepts of masculinity were increasingly connected to the discourse about the supremacy of the white race as well as a primitivist longing for a more primordial form of masculinity based on physical strength and closeness to nature.
Some concrete expressions of this male identity process were the lynching mobs of the Restoration South, the massive support for Theodore Roosevelt and Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad cult of Tarzan. See Bederman,pp. Since the three estates mirrored each other, the husband and his mandate were juxtaposed to the priest in church and the king political affairs. This cultural framework began to fall apart in the beginning of the 7 Ibid.
Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad rooted this figure in a shadowy and pre-historic past, whereas Pleijel limited his account to the impact of Lutheran orthodoxy. First and foremost, the anchoring of their family models among the pre-modern populaces has been questioned, since both scholars based their research on elite sources. This critique is particularly pertinent in the case of Brunner, whose talk of an almost immemorial house tradition chiefly is based on printed sources from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the so-called hausvater- literature.
Their theses have been elaborated by later research. This holds especially true for the German case. The magisterial historical dictionary Gesichtliche Grundbegriffe contains a very useful article by Dieter Schwab about the historical development of Haus and Familie in the German language. According to Schwab, the development of a specific terminology designating the domestic grouping is a scholarly phenomenon, originating in "Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad" later Middle Ages, when political theorists and theologians appropriated the Aristotelian theory of house management — the so-called Oeconomia — as a tool for the political, economic and moral government of the populace.
The concept of the house, which previously had designated a building, was increasingly used to indicate the domestic grouping as a singular unit. The house thus became the focal point of Christian conduct and marital life. However, by historicizing the very concept of the house, Schwab reveals the Hausvater as an ideological programme, orchestrated by church and state theorists of the late medieval and early modern period. Thus, a study of how masculinity was conceptualised within this ideological programme, which reached Sweden through the Lutheran Reformation, would provide an opportunity to study the formulation of hierarchies and the establishment of cultural values at the most basic level 22 Schwabpp.
One weighty historical problem arises: Schwab focuses on scholarly discourse and does not pursue these issues, but they have been handled by subsequent family historians. The Reformation thus Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad a reinforcement of patriarchal power, anchored in everyday life through the marital command of the Hausvater. Within the urban milieu that Roper investigates, these disruptive aspects were primarily attributed to the apprentices of the flamboyant guild culture.
These unmarried men were regarded as the Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad exponents of certain masculine vices, e. Although the Hausvater represented social order to clergymen and magistrates alike, the looming presence of the masculine vices constantly pressed authorities to intervene in the household affairs of individual burghers.
Through the making of marital masculinity, it is possible to grasp how the ideal relationship between man and woman — the elevated estate of husband and wife — was constructed.
In his work, Power in the Blood, Sabean discusses how the notion of the house was crafted to suit certain needs of the early modern state.
The choice and use of a particular term depended on whether the person speaking Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad, for instance, a peasant wife, village elder or state official. It exorcises all views of the Hausvater as a unified and monolithic model, uncritically absorbed by the populace, because the ideology of the house was shaped through negotiations, among commoners as well as between commoners and authorities.
This observation is corroborated on a more general level 31 See for instance Andersson,p. According to many of these scholars, the law court can be seen as an arena where actors representing different strata of society meet and contest certain cultural meanings.
Therefore, it is also a dynamo of knowledge and cultural meaning. All three historians use various forms of court records, ecclesiastical and secular, as their principal source material and focus on "Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad" interaction between authorities and commoners.
Lennartson and Foyster are concerned with the seventeenth century, Telste with the years between The historiography on the Husband highlights two periods as particularly interesting for a court-based masculinity study of early modern Sweden: What was the relation between the medieval concepts of masculinity and the marriage programmes orchestrated by different sixteenth century authorities?
And what happened to marital masculinity during the erosion of orthodoxy in the early nineteenth century? Due to source-technical reasons, the later period is more feasible for thorough gender research.
Thus, the present dissertation focuses on the composition of the Swedish Husband in various law courts during the decades around And it 44 Pleijel,p.
A substantial conclusion can be found on pp. For instance, were certain men branded as unmarriageable and to which societal problems were Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad definitions of the bad husband linked? Thus, to study the making of the Husband does not imply that a singular form of masculinity will be placed under scrutiny. Rather, this is a study of how various masculinities were formulated around the ideal of the Good Marriage.
Furthermore, the traits that distinguished marriageable men and good husbands from non-marriageable men and bad husbands sheds light on how the relation between the individual and the community was construed. For example, how were wife abusers represented when related to the interests of the larger community, such as the parish, the order of God, or even the abstract but all-encompassing entity of the Swedish state?
Thereby, the study of masculinity and marriage is, to a certain extent, a study of Swedish society around from a bottom-up perspective. An influential strand within the international family historiography has concentrated on the codes of love and intimacy between family members, especially between husband and wife.
With few exceptions, these historians or historically-oriented sociologists sense a fundamental shift in family relations during the decades around and they read this as the breeding ground for what they call the modern family, often hand in hand with the modern individual.
The eighteenth century is put forward as the affective age par excellence, characterised by an increasing priority of emotions over material considerations in family relations and by loosening bonds on sexual behaviour. The classic family historian Lawrence Stone claims that this period saw Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad emergence of the modern nuclear family, based on affection rather than patriarchal reverence,52 and the Swedish historian Arne Jarrick talks about a general elevation of sexual pleasures that was particularly beneficial for women.
In his analysis, Jarrick repeatedly stresses that love is not a construction but a timeless emotion. However, he asserts that the social conditions for love changed dramatically during the second half of the eighteenth century, due to a deep-seated civilization process that made social relations more humane and empathetic.
See for instance pp. The family situation depicted in his analysis is a pandemonium of opinions where different solutions and contradictory portraits of an Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad hegemonic family model intermingle. An important feature of the master-chronology is the notion of an increasing privatisation of family life: Hull observes how philosophers and state officials of Enlightenment Germany promoted marriage as the ultimate means for the making of the civil society: The institution of marriage instilled morals and virtues in men and women alike, but it was primarily the man who was transformed for the better.
In fact, the married man was the citizen of the civil society. This powerful drive was celebrated as the motor of social and economic development and sexual activity within marriage became the hallmark of an adult, independent, responsible and productive male citizen. The family was indeed defined as a special sphere, yet this privileged distinctiveness was coupled with the escalating involvement of social reformers and state officials. And the objective of these intrusions was often to correct marital masculinity.
Var femte kvinna har någon gång avstått från "Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad" gå ut på kvällen på grund av rädsla för att bli Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad eller hotad. Var tjugonde man . Vi har enbart tagit med våldsbrott (misshandel, våldtäkt och rån) utomhus där gärningsman och offer inte känner varandra.
Är din hyresvärd med på vår svarta lista?. IS-kvinna från Tyskland mördade femårig flicka - som straff för att hon blivit sjuk. talesperson anlitade arbetskraft svart – anmäls till Ekobrottsmyndigheten. Plötsligt gick larmet om överfall på Systembolaget. Polisen skickades till Overfallen kvinna svart misshandlad. Poliser larmades strax innan kl 16 under sena eftermiddagen.